[URBANTH-L]Urban Nexus No. 25 / Child-Friendly Cities (fwd)

RAE BRIDGMAN bridgman at cc.umanitoba.ca
Thu Feb 17 18:59:44 EST 2005

=2E..for those of you who are working on issues related to "child-friendly
cities."  Rae Bridgman


>From: nexus at cprn.org
>Urban Nexus
>An e-bulletin of the Family Network of CPRN
>Welcome to Urban Nexus, a monthly e-bulletin of
>policy research, news and events on cities and
>communities launched by Canadian Policy Research
>Networks (CPRN) in October 2002. Urban Nexus is
>for policy-makers, researchers and interested
>members of the public seeking up-to-date
>information, from Canadian and non-Canadian
>sources, about new research on cities.
>To view archived Urban Nexus summaries on the
>CPRN Web site, simply click here:
>February 16, 2005 =96 Child-Friendly Cities
>As the world becomes increasingly urbanized,
>more children and young people live in cities.
>In industrialized countries, one-half to
>three-quarters of all children live in urban
>areas. In the developing world, six out of every
>ten children will live in cities by the year
>2025. Yet, across a wide range of indicators,
>cities are failing to meet the needs of young
>people and their families. Urban spaces put
>children at risk in many ways =96 through lack of
>safe drinking water, outdoor contaminants and
>pollution, inadequate or overcrowded shelter, a
>shortage of green and open play spaces, poverty,
>exposure to disease, traffic dangers, and crime.
>In the wake of the 1996 UN Habitat II
>conference, which declared that the well-being
>of children is the ultimate indicator of a
>healthy habitat, a number of initiatives have
>been undertaken to improve the quality of life
>in cities for young people. These initiatives
>are occurring on global, cross-national,
>national, regional, and local scales: for
>example, UNESCO=92s Growing Up in Cities project,
>the European Children=92s Network
>Ireland=92s National Children=92s Strategy
>(<http://www.nco.ie/>www.nco.ie/), Society for
>Children and Youth of BC
>(<http://www.scyofbc.org/>www.scyofbc.org/) and
>Child and Youth Friendly Ottawa
>(<http://www.cayfo.ca/>www.cayfo.ca). These
>movements challenge governments to integrate the
>needs of children into the planning, design and
>governance of the modern city =96 not only to
>address children=92s rights to play, recreation,
>and safety, but also their right to active
>participation in civic life and urban design.
>This issue of Urban Nexus highlights recent
>policy-relevant research on child-friendly
>cities and communities. For a comprehensive
>overview of current information and research
>about policies and programs for children and
>families in Canada, visit CPRN=92s Kids Canada
>Policy Digest
>UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. 2004. Building
>Child Friendly Cities: A Framework for Action.
>Florence: UNICEF International Secretariat for
>Child Friendly Cities.
>Riggio, Eliana. 2002. =93Child Friendly Cities:
>Good Governance in the Best Interests of the
>Child.=94 Environment & Urbanization Vol. 14, No.
>2: 45-58.
>Hood, Suzanne. 2004. =93Reporting on Children in
>Cities: The State of London=92s Children Reports.=94
>Children, Youth and Environments Vol. 14, No. 2:
>These three documents offer insights on
>defining, developing, and implementing
>child-friendly cities and communities. Building
>Child Friendly Cities sets out a strategy for
>building local systems of governance =96 whether
>large or small, urban or rural =96 committed to
>fulfilling children=92s rights. It defines
>child-friendly cities as those that provide
>governance structures to actively engage
>children in civic life, ensure a children=92s
>rights perspective in all relevant
>decision-making, and provide equal rights of
>access to basic services. The document shows how
>to transform national commitments to the UN
>Convention on the Rights of the Child into local
>government processes through nine =93building
>blocks,=94 which can be adapted and customized to
>local circumstances. In =93Child Friendly Cities:
>Good Governance in the Best Interests of the
>Child,=94 Riggio uses examples from Spain, the
>Occupied Territories of Palestine, Croatia,
>Ecuador, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, Sweden,
>Lebanon, Albania and the Ukraine to illustrate
>the features that make a city =93child friendly.=94
>She describes the legal, institutional,
>budgetary and planning measures needed to
>support child-friendly cities and explains how
>the concept of child-friendly cities developed.
>Hood=92s paper offers a detailed case study of the
>role and value of regular reporting on the state
>of children (one of UNICEF=92s =93building blocks=94)
>in London, UK. She reviews the policy context
>for the development of the 2001 and 2004 State
>of London=92s Children Reports, highlights the
>unique circumstances and characteristics of
>London=92s children, and explores the challenges
>involved in monitoring children=92s well-being.
>The paper considers the role of the 2001 and
>2004 reports in developing the London Mayor=92s
>Children and Young People=92s Strategy, and
>providing an outcomes framework to measure
>progress towards the Mayor=92s goals of promoting
>equality and reducing poverty and social
>exclusion for London=92s children.
>Population Connection. 2004. Kid Friendly Cities: Report Card 2004.
>Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2004. KIDS COUNT
>Special Report: City & Rural KIDS COUNT Data
>Book. Baltimore: Annie E. Casey Foundation.
>These indicator studies provide over-time data
>on key measures to describe the well-being of
>America=92s children and youth. Population
>Connection=92s 2004 Kid-Friendly Cities Report
>Card is the ninth in a series of biennial
>reports on the quality of life for urban
>children in the United States. Single-source
>data on the social, economic, educational and
>physical environment in the 100 most populated
>cities in the United States is used to grade and
>rank the =93kid-friendliness=94 of each city
>according to 16 key indicators. The indicators
>include infant mortality, babies born to teen
>mothers, percentage of children without health
>coverage, education levels, rate of violent
>crime, and child poverty rates, as well as
>indicators specific to population growth and
>natural environments, such as rate of population
>change, access to subsidized reproductive health
>services, sexual education curriculum, urban
>sprawl, and recycling. The resulting report card
>highlights both problems and successes for each
>city. For more than 15 years, the Annie E. Casey
>Foundation=92s KIDS COUNT project has used ten key
>indicators to track the status of American
>children nationally, state-by-state, and
>locally. The ten indicators use Census Bureau
>data to measure and monitor poverty, family
>structure, parental employment, housing
>affordability, and education, providing
>objective data for policy-makers to compare the
>conditions of urban families in their
>communities against those in other communities.
>The 2004 Special Report, City & Rural KIDS COUNT
>Data Book, is an effort to enhance understanding
>and awareness of conditions faced by children in
>rural communities as well as 71 large cities,
>enabling a comparison of child outcomes between
>urban and rural settings. The data shows that
>low-income families in isolated rural
>communities share the same kinds of problems,
>barriers, and disadvantages found in inner-city
>Bridgman, Rae. 2004. =93Child-Friendly Cities:
>Canadian Perspectives.=94 Children, Youth and
>Environments Vol. 14, No. 2: 178-200.
>Canadian Institute of Planners. 2002. A Kid=92s
>Guide to Building Great Communities: A Manual
>for Planners and Educators. Ottawa: Canadian
>Institute of Planners.
>Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Centred
>Prairie Communities. 2003. Our Prairie Future:
>Toward Child and Youth-Centred Communities.
>Hertzman, Clyde, S. McLean, D. Kohen, J. Dunn,
>and T. Evans. 2002. Early Development in
>Vancouver: Report of the Community Asset Mapping
>Project (CAMP). Ottawa: Human Early Learning
>These four documents highlight recent Canadian
>approaches to building child-friendly cities.
>=93Child-Friendly Cities: Canadian Perspectives=94
>explores best practices in educational programs
>and environmental design projects that address
>the needs of young people in Canadian cities.
>The paper features case studies of youth
>involvement in a range of spheres (arts and
>urban revitalization, environmentalism,
>community development, educational programming,
>and civic participation) spanning different
>scales, from individual activism and non-profit
>programs to neighborhood-based development and
>municipal initiatives. Through these case
>studies, Bridgman identifies 15 factors that
>constitute best practice, including the degree
>of young people=92s participation, intended goals
>of fostering independence, recognition of
>diverse groups of young people, safety and
>security, innovative use of existing resources,
>operational sustainability, replicability, and
>innovative development or implementation
>processes and structures. The Canadian Institute
>of Planners=92 A Kid=92s Guide to Building Great
>Communities is a practical resource for planning
>professionals and educators interested in
>teaching children and youth about urban planning
>and community development. The manual offers
>tools to engage young people in thinking about
>their communities and involving them in
>decisions that link directly to many aspects of
>their daily lives and the future of their
>communities. Our Prairie Future: Toward Child
>and Youth Centred Communities reports on the
>first phase of a five-year community-based
>research project involving six prairie cities
>with the deliberate, structured engagement of
>Aboriginal people. Primary focus group research
>is used to compare community responses, or
>mediating actions, to social, physical and
>health impacts on young people. The research
>reveals common concerns across the six sites
>about community capacity to respond and the need
>for cultural sensitivity and awareness, as well
>as shared recognition of the importance of
>involving young people in developing successful
>mediating actions. The second phase of the
>research develops models of mediating actions
>and best practices based upon the practical
>experiences of the six cities. The Report of the
>Community Asset Mapping Project measures the
>state of development of Vancouver=92s children.
>The report finds large and consistent
>differences in developmental vulnerability
>between the most and least affluent Vancouver
>neighbourhoods, and urges inter-sectoral
>collaboration to ensure neighbourhood access to
>a comprehensive range of programs, including
>child care, family literacy, and special
>developmental services.
>National Association of Children and Youth
>Councils (ANACEJ). 2000. =C9tude exploratoire:
>quelles modalit=E9s de collaboration possibles
>entre les conseils d=92enfants et de jeunes et le
>contrat de ville. Available in French only.
>In 1999, ANACEJ (Association Nationale des
>Conseils d=92Enfants et de Jeunes =96 National
>Association of Children and Youth Councils) and
>DIV (D=E9l=E9gation Interminist=E9rielle =E0 la Ville =96
>Interministerial Delegation on Cities) made the
>decision to conduct an exploratory study on the
>various types of collaboration possible between
>Children and Youth Councils and City Social
>Contracts. The study offers reflections on and
>comparisons between the experiences of three
>cities, within the context of two goals. First,
>to offer an account of how and to what extent
>such collaboration has worked in practice; and
>second, to reflect on the possibilities and
>limits for the future. These three case studies
>demonstrate that the prerequisite for
>establishing substantive links between Councils
>and City Social Contracts is a direct engagement
>between Councils and policy-making bodies, which
>would create functional and structural
>relationships at the heart of municipal
>What=92s New?
>On the Bookshelf
>Adams, Eileen, and Sue Ingham. 1998. Changing
>Places: Children=92s Participation in
>Environmental Planning. London: The Children=92s
>This book shows how children of all ages can
>participate in the process of community planning
>and urban change. It encourages planners,
>architects, youth and community workers,
>teachers and others to consider what community
>participation means, how children learn about
>planning processes, and how to incorporate
>children=92s opinions and views into a planning
>Chawla, Louise (ed.). 2002. Growing Up in an
>Urbanising World. London: UNESCO, Earthscan.
>Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts
>from the fields of urban planning, architecture,
>geography, anthropology, psychology, and
>environmental education, Growing Up in an
>Urbanising World summarizes the results of an
>eight-nation UNESCO project involving a spectrum
>of low-income neighborhoods in the
>industrialized and developing worlds. The book
>emphasizes the importance of enabling the active
>participation of children and youth in the
>planning, design, and implementation of urban
>Driskell, David (ed.). 2002. Creating Better
>Cities with Children and Youth: A Manual for
>Participation. London: UNESCO, Earthscan.
>This book is a practical manual on how to
>conceptualize, structure and facilitate the
>participation of young people in community
>development. It is intended for use by urban
>planners, municipal officials, community
>development staff, non-governmental
>organizations, educators, youth-serving
>agencies, youth advocates, and others who are
>involved in community development. Using case
>studies from a wide range of both developing and
>industrialized urban settings, the manual shows
>the value of engaging young people in analyzing
>and prioritizing their needs to improve their
>O=92Brien, Margaret, and Pia Christensen (ed.).
>2003. Children in the City: Home, Neighbourhood
>and Community. London: RoutledgeFalmer Press.
>This book brings together leading international
>scholars to consider the importance of the
>contemporary city as a social, cultural and
>material place for children, and explore the
>connections and boundaries between home,
>neighbourhood, community and city. The authors
>stress the importance of engaging children in
>successfully reforming cities within a
>child-sensitive framework.
>Conferences and Events
>Saskatchewan Association of Rural
>Municipalities. =93Annual Convention. A Century of
>Success =96 Leading the Future.=94 March 7-10, 2005.
>Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
>Child and Youth Friendly Ottawa and Ottawa
>Anti-Bullying Coalition. =93Beyond Rhetoric:
>Canada=92s Second Conference on Bullying.=94 March
>21-23, 2005. Ottawa, Ontario.
>Third Urban Research Symposium, World Bank and
>Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA).
>=93Land Development, Urban Policy and Poverty
>Reduction.=94 April 4-6, 2005. Brasilia, Brazil.
>University of London, Department of Politics and
>IR. =93Rethinking European Spaces: Territory,
>Borders, Governance.=94 April 21-22, 2005. Surrey,
>United Kingdom.
>United Nations Children=92s Fund (UNICEF) and the
>Graduate Program in International Affairs
>(GPIA), New School University. =93Children and
>Poverty: Global Trends, Local Solutions?=94 April
>25-27, 2005. New York, New York.
>Information: <mailto:komarecm at newschool.edu>komarecm at newschool.edu
>Environmental Design Research Association.
>=93Children=92s Environments Research and Design:
>Diverse Perspectives, Diverse Outcomes.=94 April
>27, 2005. Vancouver, British Columbia.
>Rural and Remote Medicine Conference. =93Rural
>Communities and Their Medical Needs.=94 April
>28-30, 2005. Montreal, Quebec.
>The Cultural Future of Small Cities, Kamloops
>Art Gallery and University College of the
>Cariboo. =93Small Cities Forum.=94 May 4-7, 2005.
>Kamloops, British Columbia.  Information:
><mailto:ldubinsky at museums.ca>ldubinsky at museums.ca
>RAIC Festival of Architecture. =93Celebrating the
>City.=94 May 5-7, 2005. Edmonton, Alberta.
>Canadian Co-operative Association. =932005
>Congress.=94 May 14-19, 2005. Saskatoon,
>Arab Urban Development Institute (AUDI), Dubai
>Municipality and the World Bank. =93Urban Children
>and Youth in the MENA Region: Addressing
>Priorities in Education.=94 May 16-18, 2005.
>Dubai, U.A.E.
>3rd InASEA Conference. =93Urban Life and Culture
>in Southeast Europe.=94 May 20, 2005. Belgrade,
>Serbia and Montenegro.
>Local Initiatives Service Corporation. =93Urban
>Forum 2005.=94 May 23-25, 2005. San Francisco,
>=93Urbistics Montreal 2005. New Trends in the
>Integrated Urban Development.=94 May 23-26, 2005.
>Montreal, Quebec.
>Cooperative State Research, Education, and
>Extension Service. =93The Children, Youth, and
>Families at Risk (CYFAR) Conference 2005.=94 May
>25-27, 2005. Boston, MA.
>UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).
>=93African Development Forum V Devoted to Youth
>Issues.=94 June 15-19, 2005. Addis Ababa,
>Ethiopia. Information:
><mailto:kboateng at uneca.org>kboateng at uneca.org
>University of Oslo, Norwegian Social Research
>Association, Childwatch International Research
>Network. =93Childhoods 2005.=94 June 29-July 3,
>2005. Oslo, Norway.
>Research Committee, Environment and Society.
>=93Technonatures 111: Environments, Technologies,
>Spaces and Places in the 21st Century.=94 July
>6-9, 2005. Stockholm, Sweden.
>International Association for the Child=92s Right
>to Play (IPA). =93Play: Learning for Life.=94 July
>18-22, 2005. Berlin, Germany.
>United Nations Enivronmental Programme (UNEP)
>and the Aichi Prefectural Government of Japan.
>=93Children=92s World Summit for the Environment.=94
>July 26-29, 2005. Aichi, Japan.
>Sister Cities International. =932005 Annual
>Conference. Connecting Global Villages.=94 July
>27-31, 2005. Spokane, Washington.
>International Institute for the Urban
>Environment (IIUE), the City of Delft and the
>Network of Child Friendly Cities in the
>Netherlands. =93Childstreet 2005.=94 August 24-26,
>2005. Delft, The Netherlands.
>International Congress on Environmental Planning
>and Management. =93Environmental Challenges of
>Urbanization.=94 September 11-15, 2005. Brasilia,
>Winnipeg Inner City Research Alliance.
>=93Cuexpo2005 =96 Community University Research
>Partnerships: Leaders in Urban Change.=94
>September 15-18, 2005. Winnipeg, Manitoba.
>National League of Cities Institute for Youth,
>Education, and Families. =932005 National Summit
>on Your City=92s Families.=94 September 25-28, 2005.
>San Antonio, Texas.
>49th IFHP World Congress. =93Urban Futures,
>Continuities and Discontinuities.=94 October 2-5,
>2005. Rome, Italy.
>Search Institute. =932005 Healthy Communities,
>Healthy Youth Conference.=94 November 3-5, 2005.
>Dallas, Texas.
>Policy Research Reports
>Aguirre, Angela, and Mary Racelis. 2002. =93Child
>Rights for Urban Poor Children in Child Friendly
>Philippine Cities: Views from the Community.=94
>Environment & Urbanization Vol. 14, No. 2:
>Baker, Stephen, Joan Costello, Joan Wynn, Sheila
>Merry, and Harold Richman. 2001. Marking
>Progress in Community Initiatives. Chicago:
>Chapin Hall Centre for Children.
>Beauvais, Caroline, and Jane Jenson. 2003. The
>Well-being of Children: Are There Neighbourhood
>Effects? Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research
>Bennett, Fran, and Sandy Ruxton. 2002. Including
>Children? Developing a Coherent Approach to
>Child Poverty and Social Exclusion across
>Europe. Brussels: Euronet.
>Blinkert, Baldo. 2004. =93Quality of the City for
>Children: Chaos and Order.=94 Children, Youth and
>Environments Vol. 14, No. 2: 99-112.
>Center for Community Research & Service. 2003.
>Community Development and Family Support:
>Forging a Practical Nexus to Strengthen Families
>and Communities. Newark: University of Delaware.
>Chaskin, Robert. 2001. Lessons Learned from the
>Implementation of the Neighborhood and Family
>Initiative: A Summary of Findings. Chicago:
>Chapin Hall Centre for Children.
>Chaskin, Robert, Selma Chipenda-Dansokho, and
>Amanda K. Toler. 2001. Moving Beyond the
>Neighborhood and Family Initiative: The Final
>Phase and Lessons Learned. Chicago: Chapin Hall
>Centre for Children.
>Corsi, Marco. 2002. =93The Child Friendly Cities
>Initiative in Italy.=94 Environment & Urbanization
>Vol. 14, No. 2: 169-179.
>Costello, Joan, Sheila Merry, Stephen Baker, and
>Lisa Marie Pickens. 1998. The Children, Youth
>and Families Initiative: A Mid-Course Report.
>Chicago: Chapin Hall Centre for Children.
>Council on Social Development Regina. 2002. A
>Focus on Regina=92s Children and Youth: A
>Literature Review Perspective. Regina: The
>Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Centred
>Prairie Communities.
>Daro, Deborah, Eboni Howard, Jennifer Tobin, and
>Allen Harden. 2004. Cuyahoga County Early
>Childhood Initiative Evaluation Report: Welcome
>Home and Early Start. Chicago: Chapin Hall
>Centre for Children.
>Euronet. 2003. Children and the Future of
>Europe, Conference Report. Brussels: Euronet.
>Family Service Association of Toronto and
>Community Social Planning Council of Toronto.
>July 2004. Falling Fortunes: A Report on the
>Status of Young Families in Toronto. Toronto:
>Family Service Association of Toronto and
>Community Social Planning Council of Toronto.
>Feinstein, Otto. 2000. The Urban Agenda =96 Civic
>Literacy Project and the Educational Needs of
>Urban Youth: Promoting Citizenship and Inclusion
>in the School and Community. Detroit: Skillman
>Center for Children, Wayne State University.
>Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and
>Health. 2004. Children=92s Environment and Health
>Action Plan for Europe. Budapest: World Health
>Freiler, Christa, Laurel Rothma, and Pedro
>Barata. 2004. Pathways to Progress: Structural
>Solutions to Address Child Poverty. Toronto:
>Campaign 2000.
>Fronczek, Valerie, and Robert A. Yates. 2003.
>Society for Children and Youth of BC. Child and
>Youth Friendly Communities Initiative =96 Project
>Review. Florence: UNICEF International
>Secretariat for Child Friendly Cities.
>Fuentes, Patricio, and Reiko Niimi. 2002.
>=93Motivating Municipal Action for Children: The
>Municipal Seal of Approval in Cear=E1, Brazil.=94
>Environment & Urbanization Vol. 14, No. 2:
>Government of Canada. 2004. A Canada Fit for
>Children: Canada=92s Plan of Action in Response to
>the May 2002 United Nations Special Session on
>Children. Ottawa: Government of Canada.
>Greater London Authority. 2004. Making London
>Better for All Children and Young People: The
>Mayor=92s Children and Young People=92s Strategy.
>London: Greater London Authority.
>Hahn, Andrew. 2001. Change that Abides: A
>Retrospective Look at Five Community and Family
>Strengthening Projects and Their Enduring
>Results. Waltham: Center for Youth and
>Communities, Brandeis University.
>Hall, Georgia, Laura Israel, and Joyce Shortt.
>2004. It=92s About Time: A Look at Out-of-School
>Time for Urban Teens. Wellesley: The National
>Institute on Out-of-School Time.
>Health Canada. 1999. Healthy Development of
>Children and Youth: The Role of the Determinants
>of Health. Ottawa: Government of Canada.
>Hogan, Cornelius D. 1999. Vermont Communities
>Count: Using Results to Strengthen Services for
>Families and Children. Baltimore: Annie E. Casey
>Jenson, Jane, and Rianne Mahon. 2002. Bringing
>Cities to the Table: Child Care and
>Intergovernmental Relations. Ottawa: Canadian
>Policy Research Networks.
>Kunert-Schroth, Heidrun. 1998. Planning Cities
>for Children and Youth: Current Efforts in
>Germany. Berlin: German Institute of Urban
>Makhoul, Anne. 2001. Healthy Families, Healthy
>Communities. Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social
>Makhoul, Anne. 2000. Project Early Intervention.
>Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social Policy.
>Mannes, Marc, Shenita Lewis, Nicole Hintz, Karen
>Foster, and Michael Nakkula. 2002. Cultivating
>Developmentally Attentive Communities: A Report
>on the First Wave of the National Asset-Building
>Case Study Project. Boston: Search Institute and
>Harvard University.
>Morrow Virginia. 2001. Networks and
>Neighbourhoods: Children and Young People=92s
>Perspectives. London: Health Development Agency.
>National Children=92s Office. 2004. 2003 Progress
>Report on the National Children=92s Strategy.
>Dublin: Government of Ireland.
>O=92Hare, William, and Mark Mather. 2003. The
>Growing Number of Kids in Severely Distressed
>Neighborhoods: Evidence from the 2000 Census.
>The Annie E. Casey Foundation and Population
>Reference Bureau.
>Reidy, Mairead, and Carolyn Winje. 2002. Youth
>Indicator Initiatives in Place in States as of
>September 2002. Chicago: Chapin Hall Centre for
>Reidy, Mairead, and Carolyn Winje. 2002. Youth
>Indicators in Use in States as of September
>2002. Chicago: Chapin Hall Centre for Children.
>Riggio Chaudhuri, Eliana. 2004. Cities Fit For
>Children in A World Fit For Children. Background
>Paper: Intergovernmental Conference on Making
>Europe and Central Asia Fit for Children.
>Florence: UNICEF International Cities
>Simpson, Ann. October 2000. Street Culture Kidz.
>Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social Policy.
>Skillman Center for Children. 2002. Voices from
>the City =96 =93Safe and Sound: Making a Commitment
>to Detroit=92s Kids.=94 Detroit: Skillman Center for
>Children, Wayne State University.
>Spielberger, Julie, Carol Horton, Lisa Michels,
>and Robert Halpern. 2005. Teens in the Library:
>Findings from the Evaluation of Public Libraries
>as Partners in Youth Development. Chicago:
>Chapin Hall Centre for Children.
>Steinhauer, Paul D. 1996. The Primary Needs of
>Children: A Blueprint for Effective Health
>Promotion at the Community Level. Ottawa:
>Caledon Institute of Social Policy.
>Torjman, Sherry, E. Leviten-Reid, and P.
>Heisler. 2002. A Social Vision for the New City
>of Hamilton. Ottawa: Caledon Institute of Social
>UNICEF. 2004. Project Review: Children and Young
>People=92s Strategy, London, UK. Florence: UNICEF
>International Secretariat for Child Friendly
>24 UNICEF project reviews reflecting good
>child-friendly practices are available for
>UNICEF. 2004. Sport, Recreation and Play. New York: UNICEF.
>UNICEF Children=92s Environments Research Group.
>1996. Children=92s Rights and Habitat: Working
>Towards Child-Friendly Cities. New York: UNICEF.
>Vandivere, Sharon, Megan Gallagher, and Kristin
>Anderson Moore. 2004. =93Changes in Children=92s
>Well-Being and Family Environments.=94 Child
>Trends No. 18. Washington: Urban Institute.
>Wynn, Joan. 2000. The Role of Local Intermediary
>Organizations in the Youth Development Field.
>Chicago: Chapin Hall Centre for Children.
>Yohalem, Nicole, and Karen Pittman. 2003. Public
>Libraries as Partners in Youth Development:
>Lessons and Voices from the Field. Washington:
>The Forum for Youth Investment.
>Send information on submissions you would like
>to have considered for a future update to
><mailto:nexus at cprn.org>nexus at cprn.org.If you
>have not already done so, subscribe to the Urban
>Nexus list-serve
>at <http://www.cprn.org/en/nexus.cfm>www.cprn.org/en/nexus.cfm

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